- Bosnia and Herzegovina
Introduction ::Bosnia and HerzegovinaBackground:Bosnia and Herzegovina's declaration of sovereignty in October 1991 was followed by a declaration of independence from the former Yugoslavia on 3 March 1992 after a referendum boycotted by ethnic Serbs. The Bosnian Serbs - supported by neighboring Serbia and Montenegro - responded with armed resistance aimed at partitioning the republic along ethnic lines and joining Serb-held areas to form a ""Greater Serbia."" In March 1994, Bosniaks and Croats reduced the number of warring factions from three to two by signing an agreement creating a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. On 21 November 1995, in Dayton, Ohio, the warring parties initialed a peace agreement that brought to a halt three years of interethnic civil strife (the final agreement was signed in Paris on 14 December 1995). The Dayton Peace Accords retained Bosnia and Herzegovina's international boundaries and created a multi-ethnic and democratic government charged with conducting foreign, diplomatic, and fiscal policy. Also recognized was a second tier of government composed of two entities roughly equal in size: the Bosniak/Bosnian Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska (RS). The Federation and RS governments are responsible for overseeing most government functions. Additionally, the Dayton Accords established the Office of the High Representative (OHR) to oversee the implementation of the civilian aspects of the agreement. The Peace Implementation Council (PIC) at its conference in Bonn in 1997 also gave the High Representative the authority to impose legislation and remove officials, the so-called ""Bonn Powers."" An original NATO-led international peacekeeping force (IFOR) of 60,000 troops assembled in 1995 was succeeded over time by a smaller, NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR). In 2004, European Union peacekeeping troops (EUFOR) replaced SFOR. Currently EUFOR deploys around 600 troops in theater in a policing capacity.Geography ::Bosnia and HerzegovinaLocation:Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and CroatiaGeographic coordinates:44 00 N, 18 00 EArea:total: 51,197 sq kmcountry comparison to the world: 129land: 51,187 sq kmwater: 10 sq kmArea - comparative:slightly smaller than West VirginiaLand boundaries:total: 1,538 kmborder countries: Croatia 932 km, Montenegro 249 km, Serbia 357 kmCoastline:20 kmMaritime claims:no data availableClimate:hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short, cool summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters along coastTerrain:mountains and valleysElevation extremes:lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 mhighest point: Maglic 2,386 mNatural resources:coal, iron ore, bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, cobalt, manganese, nickel, clay, gypsum, salt, sand, timber, hydropowerLand use:arable land: 19.63%permanent crops: 1.99%other: 78.38% (2011)Irrigated land:30 sq km (2003)Total renewable water resources:37.5 cu km (2011)Natural hazards:destructive earthquakesEnvironment - current issues:air pollution from metallurgical plants; sites for disposing of urban waste are limited; water shortages and destruction of infrastructure because of the 1992-95 civil strife; deforestationEnvironment - international agreements:party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlandssigned, but not ratified: none of the selected agreementsGeography - note:within Bosnia and Herzegovina's recognized borders, the country is divided into a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation (about 51% of the territory) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska or RS (about 49% of the territory); the region called Herzegovina is contiguous to Croatia and Montenegro, and traditionally has been settled by an ethnic Croat majority in the west and an ethnic Serb majority in the eastPeople and Society ::Bosnia and HerzegovinaNationality:noun: Bosnian(s), Herzegovinian(s)adjective: Bosnian, HerzegovinianEthnic groups:Bosniak 48%, Serb 37.1%, Croat 14.3%, other 0.6% (2000)note: Bosniak has replaced Muslim as an ethnic term in part to avoid confusion with the religious term Muslim - an adherent of IslamLanguages:Bosnian (official), Croatian (official), SerbianReligions:Muslim 40%, Orthodox 31%, Roman Catholic 15%, other 14%Population:3,875,723 (July 2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 128Age structure:0-14 years: 14% (male 279,293/female 262,552)15-24 years: 13% (male 260,430/female 243,589)25-54 years: 46.8% (male 910,266/female 905,184)55-64 years: 13.2% (male 243,936/female 268,614)65 years and over: 12.9% (male 194,743/female 307,116) (2013 est.)Dependency ratios:total dependency ratio: 45.5 %youth dependency ratio: 22.9 %elderly dependency ratio: 22.7 %potential support ratio: 4.4 (2013)Median age:total: 40.4 yearsmale: 39 yearsfemale: 41.7 years (2013 est.)Population growth rate:-0.1% (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 205Birth rate:8.92 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 211Death rate:9.53 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 56Net migration rate:-0.37 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 131Urbanization:urban population: 49% of total population (2010)rate of urbanization: 1.1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)Major urban areas - population:SARAJEVO (capital) 389,000 (2011)Sex ratio:at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female55-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female65 years and over: 0.63 male(s)/femaletotal population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2013 est.)Mother's mean age at first birth:25.9 (2010 est.)Maternal mortality rate:8 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)country comparison to the world: 158Infant mortality rate:total: 5.97 deaths/1,000 live birthscountry comparison to the world: 172male: 6.02 deaths/1,000 live birthsfemale: 5.92 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)Life expectancy at birth:total population: 76.12 yearscountry comparison to the world: 86male: 73.13 yearsfemale: 79.34 years (2013 est.)Total fertility rate:1.25 children born/woman (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 218Contraceptive prevalence rate:45.8% (2012)Health expenditures:11.1% of GDP (2010)country comparison to the world: 19Physicians density:1.42 physicians/1,000 population (2005)Hospital bed density:3.4 beds/1,000 population (2009)Drinking water source:improved:urban: 100% of populationrural: 98% of populationtotal: 99% of populationunimproved:urban: 0% of populationrural: 2% of populationtotal: 1% of population (2010 est.)Sanitation facility access:improved:urban: 99% of populationrural: 92% of populationtotal: 95% of populationunimproved:urban: 1% of populationrural: 8% of populationtotal: 5% of population (2010 est.)HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:less than 0.1% (2007 est.)country comparison to the world: 113HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:900 (2007 est.)country comparison to the world: 146HIV/AIDS - deaths:100 (2001 est.)country comparison to the world: 128Obesity - adult prevalence rate:26.5% (2008)country comparison to the world: 47Children under the age of 5 years underweight:1.6% (2006)country comparison to the world: 124Education expenditures:NALiteracy:definition: age 15 and over can read and writetotal population: 98%male: 99.5%female: 96.7% (2011 est.)School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 14 yearsmale: 13 yearsfemale: 14 years (2011)Child labor - children ages 5-14:total number: 24,722percentage: 5 % (2006 est.)Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:total: 57.5%country comparison to the world: 3male: 56.8%female: 60% (2011)Government ::Bosnia and HerzegovinaCountry name:conventional long form: noneconventional short form: Bosnia and Herzegovinalocal long form: nonelocal short form: Bosna i Hercegovinaformer: People's Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Socialist Republic of Bosnia and HerzegovinaGovernment type:emerging federal democratic republicCapital:name: Sarajevogeographic coordinates: 43 52 N, 18 25 Etime difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in OctoberAdministrative divisions:2 first-order administrative divisions and 1 internationally supervised district* - Brcko District (Brcko Distrikt)*, the Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Federacija Bosne i Hercegovine) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska; note - Brcko District is in northeastern Bosnia and is a self-governing administrative unit under the sovereignty of Bosnia and Herzegovina and formally held in condominium between the two entitiesIndependence:1 March 1992 (from Yugoslavia; referendum for independence completed on 1 March 1992; independence declared on 3 March 1992)National holiday:National Day (Statehood Day), 25 November (1943); note - observed only in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina entityConstitution:the Dayton Peace Accords, signed 14 December 1995 in Paris, included a constitution; note - each of the entities and cantons also has its own constitutionLegal system:civil law system; Constitutional Court review of legislative actsInternational law organization participation:has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdictionSuffrage:18 years of age, 16 if employed; universalExecutive branch:chief of state: Chairman of the Presidency Nebojsa RADMANOVIC (chairman since November 2012; presidency member since 6 November 2006 - Serb); other members of the three-member presidency rotate every eight months: Bakir IZETBEGOVIC (presidency member since 10 November 2010 - Bosniak); Zeljko KOMSIC (presidency member since 6 November 2006 - Croat)head of government: Chairman of the Council of Ministers Vjekoslav BEVANDA (since 12 January 2012)cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the council chairman; approved by the state-level House of Representatives(For more information visit the World Leaders website )elections: the three members of the presidency (one Bosniak, one Croat, one Serb) elected by popular vote for a four-year term (eligible for a second term, but then ineligible for four years) by constituencies referring to the three ethnic groups; the candidate with the most votes in a constituency is elected; the chairmanship rotates every eight months and resumes where it left off following each general election; election last held on 3 October 2010 (next to be held in October 2014); the chairman of the Council of Ministers appointed by the presidency and confirmed by the state-level House of Representativeselection results: percent of vote - Nebojsa RADMANOVIC with 48.9% of the votes for the Serb seat; Zeljko KOMSIC with 60.6% of the votes for the Croat seat; Bakir IZETBEGOVIC with 34.9% of the votes for the Bosniak seatnote: President of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Zivko BUDIMIR (since 17 March 2011); Vice Presidents Spomenka MICIC (since 21 February 2007) and Mirsad KEBO (since 21 February 2007); President of the Republika Srpska: Milorad DODIK (since 15 November 2010)Legislative branch:bicameral Parliamentary Assembly or Skupstina consists of the House of Peoples or Dom Naroda (15 seats, 5 Bosniak, 5 Croat, 5 Serb; members designated by the Bosniak/Croat Federation's House of Peoples and the Republika Srpska's National Assembly to serve four-year terms); and the state-level House of Representatives or Predstavnicki Dom (42 seats, 28 seats allocated for the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and 14 seats for the Republika Srpska; members elected by popular vote on the basis of proportional representation to serve four-year terms); note - Bosnia's election law specifies four-year terms for the state and first-order administrative division entity legislatureselections: House of Peoples - last constituted in 9 June 2011 (next likely to be constituted in 2015); state-level House of Representatives - elections last held on 3 October 2010 (next to be held in October 2014)election results: House of Peoples - percent of vote by party/coalition - NA; seats by party/coalition - NA; state-level House of Representatives - percent of vote by party/coalition - NA; seats by party/coalition - SDP BiH 8, SNSD 8, SDA 7, SDS 4, SBB BiH 4, HDZ-BiH 3, SBiH 2, HDZ-1990/HSP BiH 2, other 4note: the Bosniak/Croat Federation has a bicameral legislature that consists of a House of Peoples (58 seats - 17 Bosniak, 17 Croat, 17 Serb, 7 other); last constituted May 2011 (next likely to be constituted in 2015); and a House of Representatives (98 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms); elections last held on 3 October 2010 (next to be held in October 2014); percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party/coalition - SDP BiH 28, SDA 23, SBB BiH 13, HDZ-BiH 12, SBiH 9, NSRzB 5, HDZ-1990 3, HSP 3, DNZ 1, PDP, 1; the Republika Srpska has a National Assembly (83 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms); elections last held on 3 October 2010 (next to be held in October 2014); percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party/coalition - SNSD 37, SDS 18, PDP 7, DNS 6, SPRS 4, DP 3, SDP BiH 3, SDA 2, NDS 2 SRS-RS 1; as a result of the 2002 constitutional reform process, a 28-member Republika Srpska Council of Peoples (COP) was established in the Republika Srpska National Assembly including 8 Croats, 8 Bosniaks, 8 Serbs, and 4 members of the smaller communitiesJudicial branch:highest court(s): BiH Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members); Court of BiH (consists of 44 national judges and 7 international judges organized into three divisions - Administrative, Appellate, and Criminal, which includes a War Crimes Chamber)judge selection and term of office: BiH Constitutional Court judges - 4 selected by the Bosniak/Croat Federation's House of Representatives, 2 selected by the Republika Srpska's National Assembly, and 3 non-Bosnian judges selected by the president of the European Court of Human Rights; Court of BiH president and national judges appointed by the High Judicial and Prosecutorial Council; Court of BiH president appointed for renewable 6-year term; other national judges appointed to serve until age 70; international judges recommended by the president of the Court of BiH and appointed by the High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina; international judges appointed to serve until age 70subordinate courts: the Federation has 10 cantonal courts plus a number of municipal courts; the Republika Srpska has a supreme court, 5 district courts, and a number of municipal courtsPolitical parties and leaders:Alliance for a Better Future of BiH or SBB BiH [Fahrudin RADONCIC]Alliance of Independent Social Democrats or SNSD [Milorad DODIK]Bosnian Party or BOSS [Mirnes AJANOVIC]Bosnian Patriotic Party or BPS [Sefer HALILOVIC]Civic Democratic Party or GDS [Ibrahim SPAHIC]Croat Peasants' Party-New Croat Initiative or HSS-NHI [Ante COLAK]Croatian Christian Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina or HKDU [Ivan MUSA]Croatian Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina or HDZ-BiH [Dragan COVIC]Croatian Democratic Union 1990 or HDZ-1990 [Bozo LJUBIC]Croatian Party of Rights of Bosnia and Herzegovina or HSP BiH [Zvonko JURISIC]Democratic National Union or DNZ [Rifat DOLIC]Democratic Party or DP [Dragan CAVIC]Democratic Peoples' Alliance or DNS [Marko PAVIC]Liberal Democratic Party or LDS [Amir HUSARIC]Nasa Stranka or NS [Denis GRATZ]New Socialist Party or NSP [Zdravko KRSMANOVIC]Party for Bosnia and Herzegovina or SBiH [Amer JERLAGIC]Party of Democratic Action or SDA [Sulejman TIHIC]Party of Democratic Progress or PDP [Mladen IVANIC]'People's' Party of Work for Progress or NSRzB [Mladen IVANKOVIC-LIJANOVIC]Serb Democratic Party or SDS [Mladen BOSIC]Serb Radical Party of the Republika Srpska or SRS-RS [Milanko MIHAJLICA]Serb Radical Party-Dr. Vojislav Seselj or SRS-VS [Nemanja SAROVIC]Social Democratic Party of BiH or SDP BiH [Zlatko LAGUMDZIJA]Social Democratic Union or SDU [Nermin PECANAC]Socialist Party of Republika Srpska or SPRS [Petar DJOKIC]Political pressure groups and leaders:other: war veterans; displaced persons associations; family associations of missing persons; private mediaInternational organization participation:BIS, CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), OAS (observer), OIC (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)Diplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Jadranka NEGODICchancery: 2109 E Street NW, Washington, DC 20037telephone:  (202) 337-1500FAX:  (202) 337-1502consulate(s) general: Chicago, New YorkDiplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Patrick S. MOONembassy: 1 Robert C. Frasure Street, 71000 Sarajevomailing address: use embassy street addresstelephone:  (33) 704-000FAX:  (33) 659-722branch office(s): Banja Luka, MostarFlag description:a wide medium blue vertical band on the fly side with a yellow isosceles triangle abutting the band and the top of the flag; the remainder of the flag is medium blue with seven full five-pointed white stars and two half stars top and bottom along the hypotenuse of the triangle; the triangle approximates the shape of the country and its three points stand for the constituent peoples - Bosniaks, Croats, and Serbs; the stars represent Europe and are meant to be continuous (thus the half stars at top and bottom); the colors (white, blue, and yellow) are often associated with neutrality and peace, and traditionally are linked with BosniaNational symbol(s):golden lilyNational anthem:name: ""Drzavna himna Bosne i Hercegovine"" (The National Anthem of Bosnia and Herzegovina)lyrics/music: Dusan SESTIC and Benjamin ISOVIC/Dusan SESTICnote: music adopted 1999; lyrics adopted 2009Economy ::Bosnia and HerzegovinaEconomy - overview:Bosnia has a transitional economy with limited market reforms. The economy relies heavily on the export of metals as well as on remittances and foreign aid. A highly decentralized government hampers economic policy coordination and reform, while excessive bureaucracy and a segmented market discourage foreign investment. The interethnic warfare in Bosnia and Herzegovina caused production to plummet by 80% from 1992 to 1995 and unemployment to soar. With an uneasy peace in place, output recovered in 1996-99 but slowed in 2000-02 and picked up again during 2003-08, when GDP growth exceeded 5% per year. However, the country experienced a decline in GDP of nearly 3% in 2009 reflecting local effects of the global economic crisis. GDP has stagnated since then. Foreign banks, primarily from Austria and Italy, now control most of the banking sector. The konvertibilna marka (convertible mark or BAM) - the national currency introduced in 1998 - is pegged to the euro, and confidence in the currency and the banking sector has increased. Bosnia's private sector is growing, but foreign investment has dropped off sharply since 2007. Government spending, at roughly 50% of GDP, remains high because of redundant government offices at the state, entity and municipal level. Privatization of state enterprises has been slow, particularly in the Federation, where political division between ethnically-based political parties makes agreement on economic policy more difficult. High unemployment remains the most serious macroeconomic problem. Successful implementation of a value-added tax in 2006 provided a predictable source of revenue for the government and helped rein in gray-market activity. National-level statistics have also improved over time but a large share of economic activity remains unofficial and unrecorded. Bosnia and Herzegovina became a full member of the Central European Free Trade Agreement in September 2007. Bosnia and Herzegovina's top economic priorities are: acceleration of integration into the EU; strengthening the fiscal system; public administration reform; World Trade Organization (WTO) membership; and securing economic growth by fostering a dynamic, competitive private sector. In 2009, Bosnia and Herzegovina was granted an International Monetary Fund (IMF) stand-by arrangement, necessitated by sharply increased social spending and a fiscal crisis exacerbated by the global economic downturn. Disbursement of IMF aid was suspended in 2011 after a parliamentary deadlock left Bosnia without a state-level government for over a year. The IMF concluded a new stand-by arrangement with Bosnia in October 2012, with the first tranches paid in November and December 2012.GDP (purchasing power parity):$32.43 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 111$32.66 billion (2011 est.)$32.25 billion (2010 est.)note: data are in 2012 US dollarsGDP (official exchange rate):$17.33 billion (2012 est.)GDP - real growth rate:-0.7% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 1931.3% (2011 est.)0.7% (2010 est.)GDP - per capita (PPP):$8,400 (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 130$8,400 (2011 est.)$8,300 (2010 est.)note: data are in 2012 US dollarsGDP - composition, by end use:household consumption: 79.8%government consumption: 22.1%investment in fixed capital: 20.7%investment in inventories: 0%exports of goods and services: 42.3%imports of goods and services: -64.8%(2011 est.)GDP - composition, by sector of origin:agriculture: 8.2%industry: 26.2%services: 65.6% (2012 est.)Agriculture - products:wheat, corn, fruits, vegetables; livestockIndustries:steel, coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, bauxite, aluminum, vehicle assembly, textiles, tobacco products, wooden furniture, ammunition, domestic appliances, oil refiningIndustrial production growth rate:-4.3% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 163Labor force:2.6 million (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 110Labor force - by occupation:agriculture: 20.5%industry: 32.6%services: 47% (2008)Unemployment rate:43.3% (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 19043.1% (2010 est.)note: official rate; actual rate is lower as many technically unemployed persons work in the gray economyPopulation below poverty line:18.6% (2007 est.)Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: 2.7%highest 10%: 27.3% (2007)Distribution of family income - Gini index:36.2 (2007)country comparison to the world: 85Budget:revenues: $7.949 billionexpenditures: $8.535 billion (2012 est.)Taxes and other revenues:45.9% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 23Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):-3.4% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 129Public debt:43.8% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 7840.6% of GDP (2011 est.)note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions.Fiscal year:calendar yearInflation rate (consumer prices):2.1% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 453.7% (2011 est.)Commercial bank prime lending rate:6.73% (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 1267.14% (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of narrow money:$4.111 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 105$4.092 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of broad money:$9.577 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 108$9.538 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of domestic credit:$10.67 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 96$10.13 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Market value of publicly traded shares:$NACurrent account balance:-$1.362 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 121-$1.583 billion (2011 est.)Exports:$3.306 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 128$3.653 billion (2011 est.)Exports - commodities:metals, clothing, wood productsExports - partners:Slovenia 17.3%, Croatia 16.5%, Italy 13.6%, Germany 12.8%, Austria 12.7% (2012)Imports:$8.849 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 102$9.591 billion (2011 est.)Imports - commodities:machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffsImports - partners:Croatia 21.1%, Germany 12.5%, Slovenia 12.4%, Italy 9%, Russia 7.3%, Austria 6.1%, Hungary 4.9%, Greece 4.3% (2012)Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$4.283 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 96$4.15 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Debt - external:$10.87 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 99$10.73 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Exchange rates:konvertibilna markas (BAM) per US dollar -1.5213 (2012 est.)1.4069 (2011 est.)1.4767 (2010 est.)1.4079 (2009)1.3083 (2008)Energy ::Bosnia and HerzegovinaElectricity - production:15.04 billion kWh (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 80Electricity - consumption:10.17 billion kWh (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 88Electricity - exports:5.877 billion kWh (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 26Electricity - imports:2.887 billion kWh (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 44Electricity - installed generating capacity:4.341 million kW (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 76Electricity - from fossil fuels:44.5% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 165Electricity - from nuclear fuels:0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 50Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:55.5% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 37Electricity - from other renewable sources:0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 110Crude oil - production:0 bbl/day (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 111Crude oil - exports:0 bbl/day (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 84Crude oil - imports:4,274 bbl/day (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 81Crude oil - proved reserves:0 bbl (1 January 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 109Refined petroleum products - production:3,304 bbl/day (2008 est.)country comparison to the world: 111Refined petroleum products - consumption:27,540 bbl/day (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 119Refined petroleum products - exports:0 bbl/day (2008 est.)country comparison to the world: 154Refined petroleum products - imports:23,950 bbl/day (2008 est.)country comparison to the world: 98Natural gas - production:0 cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 103Natural gas - consumption:210 million cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 100Natural gas - exports:0 cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 64Natural gas - imports:390 million cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 68Natural gas - proved reserves:0 cu m (1 January 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 113Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:20.14 million Mt (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 82Communications ::Bosnia and HerzegovinaTelephones - main lines in use:955,900 (2011)country comparison to the world: 81Telephones - mobile cellular:3.171 million (2011)country comparison to the world: 124Telephone system:general assessment: post-war reconstruction of the telecommunications network, aided by a internationally sponsored program, resulting in sharp increases in the number of fixed telephone lines availabledomestic: fixed-line teledensity roughly 25 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership has been increasing rapidly and, stands at roughly 80 telephones per 100 personsinternational: country code - 387; no satellite earth stations (2011)Broadcast media:3 public TV broadcasters: Radio and TV of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Federation TV (operating 2 networks), and Republika Srpska Radio-TV; a local commercial network of 5 TV stations; 3 private, near-national TV stations and dozens of small independent TV stations broadcasting; 3 large public radio broadcasters and many private radio stations (2010)Internet country code:.baInternet hosts:155,252 (2012)country comparison to the world: 77Internet users:1.422 million (2009)country comparison to the world: 85Transportation ::Bosnia and HerzegovinaAirports:24 (2013)country comparison to the world: 130Airports - with paved runways:total: 72,438 to 3,047 m: 41,524 to 2,437 m: 1under 914 m: 2 (2013)Airports - with unpaved runways:total: 171,524 to 2,437 m: 1914 to 1,523 m: 5under 914 m:11 (2013)Heliports:6 (2013)Pipelines:gas 147 km; oil 9 km (2013)Railways:total: 601 kmcountry comparison to the world: 107standard gauge: 601 km 1.435-m gauge (392 km electrified) (2009)Roadways:total: 22,926 kmcountry comparison to the world: 102paved: 19,426 km (4,652 km of interurban roads)unpaved: 3,500 km (2010)Waterways:(Sava River on northern border; open to shipping but use limited) (2011)Ports and terminals:river port(s): Bosanska Gradiska, Bosanski Brod, Bosanski Samac, Brcko, Orasje (Sava River)Military ::Bosnia and HerzegovinaMilitary branches:Armed Forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina (AFBiH): Army of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Air and Air Defense Forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Zrakoplovstvo i Protuzracna Obrana, ZPO) (2013)Military service age and obligation:18 years of age for voluntary military service; mandatory retirement at age 35 or after 15 years of service (2013)Manpower available for military service:males age 16-49: 1,180,829females age 16-49: 1,143,919 (2010 est.)Manpower fit for military service:males age 16-49: 968,242females age 16-49: 937,327 (2010 est.)Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:male: 26,601female: 24,879 (2010 est.)Military expenditures:1.4% of GDP (2005 est.)country comparison to the world: 107Transnational Issues ::Bosnia and HerzegovinaDisputes - international:Serbia delimited about half of the boundary with Bosnia and Herzegovina, but sections along the Drina River remain in disputeRefugees and internally displaced persons:refugees (country of origin): 6,733 (Croatia) (2012)IDPs: 113,000 (Bosnian Croats, Serbs, and Bosniaks displaced in 1992-95 war) (2011)stateless persons: 4,500 (2012)Illicit drugs:increasingly a transit point for heroin being trafficked to Western Europe; minor transit point for marijuana; remains highly vulnerable to money-laundering activity given a primarily cash-based and unregulated economy, weak law enforcement, and instances of corruption"
The World Factbook. 2014.
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Bosnia and Herzegovina — Bosnia redirects here. For other uses, see Bosnia (disambiguation). Not to be confused with Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina or Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosna i Hercegovina Босна и Херцеговина … Wikipedia
Bosnia and Herzegovina — • Together, form the north western corner of the Balkan Peninsula Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina … Catholic encyclopedia
Bosnia and Herzegovina — Bosnia and Herzegovina has been predominantly Muslim since the Ottoman Muslim conquest of the 15th century. Christianity had some presence, thanks largely to Catholic Croatia to the north and west and Orthodox Serbia to the east, but there was … Encyclopedia of Protestantism
Bosnia and Herzegovina — [bäz′nē ə and hert΄sə gō vē′nə] country in SE Europe: it came under Turkish rule in the 15th cent. and under Austro Hungarian control in 1878: it was part of Yugoslavia (1918 91): 19,741 sq mi (51,129 sq km); pop. 4,366,000; cap. Sarajevo: also… … English World dictionary
Bosnia and Herzegovina — a republic in S Europe: formerly (1945 92) a constituent republic of Yugoslavia. 2,607,734; 19,909 sq. mi. (51,565 sq. km). Cap.: Sarajevo. * * * Bosnia and Herzegovina Introduction Bosnia and Herzegovina Background: Bosnia and Herzegovina s… … Universalium
Bosnia and Herzegovina — noun a mountainous republic of south central Europe; formerly part of the Ottoman Empire and then a part of Yugoslavia; voted for independence in 1992 but the mostly Serbian army of Yugoslavia refused to accept the vote and began ethnic cleansing … Useful english dictionary
Bosnia and Herzegovina — /hɜtsəgoʊˈvinə/ (say hertsuhgoh veenuh) noun a republic in south eastern Europe consisting of two adjacent regions, bordered by Croatia, Serbia, Montenegro, and the Adriatic Sea; Bosnia was an independent kingdom in medieval times before becoming … Australian English dictionary
Bosnia and Herzegovina — / Bosnia Herzegovina Serbian republic, formerly part of Yugoslavia; capital Sarajevo … Bryson’s dictionary for writers and editors
Bosnia and Herzegovina — Bos′nia and Herzegovi′na n. geg a republic in S Europe: formerly (1945–92) a constituent republic of Yugoslavia. 3,482,495; 19,741 sq. mi. (51,129 sq. km) cap.: Sarajevo … From formal English to slang
Bosnia and Herzegovina — noun A country on the Balkan Peninsula with the capital Sarajevo. Until 1992, it was part of Yugoslavia … Wiktionary